Wednesday, January 31, 2007

Hamparan Elektronik

Pengenalan Kepada Hamparan Elektronik

Demonstrasi kegunaan perisian hamparan elektronik

ciri-ciri dan kelebihan perisian hamparan elektroni

A Quick Tutorial toMicrosoft Excel
Spreadsheets are a great tool for doing math related jobs. They require some patience to learn, but can save yourself an incredible amount of time.

When Apple (makers of Macintosh) and IBM first started to sell microcomputers, they needed what was called a killer software in order to market their products. In both cases the killer software was a spreadsheet. People were amazed at the amount spreadsheets could do, and the time that they would save. No more pudgy fingers continually punching in numbers on a calculator.

Spreadsheets have become even more powerful and easier to use than before and are still extremely useful today. But they are now overshadowed by the many other things that computers can do like the internet.

As teachers we are always working with numbers, whether it be calculating marks, counting money, fund raising, etc. Somebody who is comfortable with spreadsheets can save themselves hours of dreary repetitive work by doing these tasks with a spreadsheet. The following tutorial will help you create a spreadsheet that will calculate your classes marks for report cards. Although it is for the subject of math, the same steps can be done for any subject that you have to calculate marks for.

If you like the X-Files on TV, you will love this since we will be making XL files (Excel files) on the computer.

On the top right hand side of the screen click on the button with the blue X to open Microsoft Excel.

Microsoft Excel should open, and you should see something on your screen that resembles a word processor, except it has a grid. Each little box on the grid is called a cell. Each column has a letter and each row has a number, therefore each cell has a label such as C5. Click on the cell which coordinates with column C and row 5.

Click on the letter A and you will notice that all of column A is selected.

Move your mouse so it is on the line in between the letter A and B. You should notice that the mouse changes shape to a line with two arrows. If you see this, click and drag your mouse a little to the right. This will make column A wider so that we can fit some student names in each of the cells below it.

Click on cell A4.

Type Names. Notice that Names appears in the cell and in the white bar near the top. This white bar is for editing the contents of a cell.

Click on the cell underneath (cell A5) and type the name of the first student on your class list.

Underneath that, type the name of the next student on your list.

Continue clicking on cells and entering names until al of your class is entered. In this case, our class only has four students (a wild dream, I know). At the bottom, skip a cell and enter Maximum, Average, and Percent into three different cells. Do this the same way you entered the names.

At this point you should save you work. Save this sheet as Class list so that you can always refer back to this file whenever you need a class list.

Click on cell A1 and type the title Math. Now click on File and slide down to Save as… and save it as Math since this is going to be you math marks.

Click on cell B2 and type the date of the first test you did this term.

In the two cells below that, type the unit that the test was on.

Underneath the unit name, enter the score of each student for that test. When you are finished, you will notice that all of the numbers are justified on the right had side of each cell, while words and letters are justified on the left hand side of each cell. This makes column B look sloppy, but don’t worry, we will easily fix this later so that everything is lined up nicely.

In the cell beside the word Maximum (at the bottom of you class list) type what the test was out of, or the maximum score possible.

Click on the cell beside Average and then click on the white bar near the top that is used for editing.


Next, without doing anything else first, click and drag over all of the cells that you want to average. You will notice that the first and last cell that you are selecting are appearing in the editing are after =AVERAGE(.

When you have selected the cells you want averaged, hit enter, and the computer automatically averages the cells.

Click in the cell next to Percent, and then click in the editing area again.


We are going to create our own simple formula for this cell. This requires just a little logic and math ability. Type =,followed by the cell that has the average (in this case cell B11). Then, with no spaces, type the division symbol (/), followed by the cell with the maximum score (in this case cell B10).

Hit enter and then click on the cell again. The number in the cell is of course a decimal number.

Click on the Percent Style button, and the number is automatically converted to a percent number with the percent symbol.

Repeat steps 12 to 15 for the next set of marks.

Now we are really going to save some time. Rather that enter the formulas that we made before again, we are just going to copy and paste them. By clicking and dragging, select the cells beside Average and Percent.

Click on the copy button.

By clicking and dragging, select the cells for Average and Percent below the new column of scores.

Now simply click on paste, and the formulas are entered relative to the new data in the new column. WOW!

Repeat steps 25 to 29 to enter the rest of your marks and find their averages and percentages.

When finished entering all of the scores for all means of assessment, title the next column Raw Total as seen below.


Click on the cell for the first student under Raw Total. Now click on the AutoSum button.

The computer automatically selects an area to be summed. If all of the cells that you want the sum of are chosen, hit enter on your keyboard.

Click back on the cell again, and click on the Copy button.

By clicking and dragging, select all of the other cells that you want to find the sum of. Then click on the Paste button.

Click on the cell next to the maximum scores. Click on AutoSum and hit enter on you keyboard. This is a repeat of steps 32 to 34.

Give the next column the title Final Mark.

Click on the cell for the first student, and then click in the editing area.

Type the cell which has the raw total for the first student (in this case cell F5)divided by (/) the raw total of the maximum scores (in this case 194). Notice that this time we are using a cell divided by a number (not a cell divided by a cell). This will make it easier to copy ad paste.

Hit enter on your keyboard and then click back on the cell.

Click on the Percent Style button, then click on the copy button.


Select the are for the other students by clicking and dragging, then click paste.

Click on a previous cell with the average formula in it, then click copy.

Click where you want the average of the final marks to be, and click on Paste.

Hit enter on your keyboard and then click on the cell again. Now click on the Percent Style button again.

We’re done calculating our marks! WOW! But before we go get a coffee, we should clean up our spread sheet so that it looks neater. I said we would do this earlier. At the beginning of the spreadsheet, click on the numbers 1,2, and 3 to select the first three rows.

Click on the bold button.

Now click on the number 4 to select all of row number 4.

Click the underline button so that all of the cells in this row will be underlined.

Now select all of the column title cells by clicking and dragging.

Click on the Align Right button to make all the titles justified on the right hand side of the cells. This will make them aligned with the numbers and scores.

We’re done! Now you can go get a coffee, sit back, put up your feet, and think about everybody else who is still plugging away at a calculator. Pat yourself on the back, you deserve it!


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